A typical pH meter has two basic components: the meter itself, which can be a moving-coil meter (one with a pointer that moves against a scale) or a digital meter (one with a numeric display), and either one or two probes that you insert into the solution you're testing. If your portable pH meter has two probes, each one is a separate electrode; if you have only one probe, both of the two electrodes are built inside it for simplicity and convenience. The electrodes aren't like normal electrodes (simple pieces of metal wire); each one is a mini chemical set in its own right. The electrode that does the most important job, which is called the glass electrode, has a silver-based electrical wire suspended in a solution of potassium chloride, contained inside a thin bulb (or membrane) made from a special glass containing metal salts (typically compounds of sodium and calcium). The other electrode is called the reference electrode and has a potassium chloride wire suspended in a solution of potassium chloride.
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