The influence of water quality on the toxicity and degradation of juglone (5-hydroxy 1,4-naphthoquinone)
You are viewing information about the paper The influence of water quality on the toxicity and degradation of juglone (5-hydroxy 1,4-naphthoquinone).
|Journal:||Environ Technol 2007/11/01|
|Authors:||Wright, D. A.;Mitchelmore, C. L.;Dawson, R.;Cutler, H. G.|
|Address:||University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, MD 20688, USA.|
This study was part of a broader investigation of low molecular weight quinones under consideration as biocides for the control of aquatic nuisance species (ANS). Preliminary investigations identified the 2-ring naphthoquinones as broad spectrum biocides controlling a wide range of aquatic organisms. All biocides were relatively short-lived in saline waters, with half-lives between 5 and 30h. Juglone (5-hydroxy 1,4-naphthoquinone) and plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4- naphthoquinone) showed the greatest toxicity against most aquatic organisms. These qualities formed the basis for a patent focusing on these two compounds as biocides for ANS control, with juglone identified as the more cost-effective of the two. Although juglone has been extensively studied as a plant toxin and reducing agent, remarkably little information exists on its use as an aquatic biocide. We describe the toxicity of juglone over the range of water quality parameters likely to be encountered in ballast water, a major vector for ANS. Tests indicated that its molecular stability was enhanced in freshwater and particularly under neutral to acid conditions. This was supported by results of bioassays on the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna that indicated enhanced juglone toxicity at pHs of < or =6.7. A low octanol:water partition coefficient for juglone indicated little capacity for these compounds to be adsorbed by suspended particulates and for bioaccumulation. These properties together with their relatively rapid degradation (t1/2 < or =30h), particularly in the marine environment, indicated a low the risk of residual toxicity associated with the release of juglone-treated water.