Impact of water quality on setting of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials

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Journal: J Prosthet Dent 2006/12/19
Published: 2006
Authors: Bradna, P.;Cerna, D.
Address: The Institute of Dental Research, First Medical Faculty of Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. bradna@vus.cz

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Setting of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials is based on the ionic reaction between carboxylic groups and calcium ions and may, therefore, be affected by ionic species present in the mixing water. The impact of this phenomenon on the clinical performance of these materials has not been well documented. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the setting behavior of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials when mixed with tap and distilled water, and to determine the impact of typical cations present in tap water and their concentrations on the setting process. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six brands of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials (Kromopan 100, Xantalgin Select FS, Alginoplast, Elastic Plus, Ypeen, and Ypeen Premium) were mixed with tap and distilled water (control) according to manufacturers' recommendations. Elastic Plus was also mixed with aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of NaCl, CaCl(2), and AlCl(3) to determine the role of typical cations on setting. Using a controlled shear stress oscillatory rheometer, time changes of storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli during setting were measured at 23 degrees C and used to determine the working and setting times and rigidity of set impression materials. The sample size (n=3) for each material/mixing system was increased to 8 to increase reliability of measurements in systems where the effect of mixing water was low or variance of results was high. The data were analyzed (alpha=.05) using a t test (tap water), a 1-way ANOVA, a Tukey post hoc test (shear stress), and a nested ANOVA and Fisher Least Significant Difference post hoc analysis (cation and cation concentration). RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed significant (P<.001) acceleration in the setting rate for Kromopan 100, the working time of which was shorter with tap water by 23.4 seconds and the setting time, by 32.8 seconds. Similar significant reductions (in seconds) in both working and setting times, respectively, were found with Xantalgin Select FS (12.0, P<.001 and 23.6, P<.002), Alginoplast (24.3, P<.001 and 44.7, P<.005), and Elastic Plus (23.0, P<.001 and 22.0, P<.002), when compared with the same materials mixed with distilled water. At the same time, the rigidity of the set impression materials mixed with tap water increased by approximately 10%. With Ypeen Premium, the setting time decreased significantly by 20.0 seconds (P<.001) with tap water, while the working time and rigidity did not change. The setting behavior of Ypeen was not significantly affected by water quality. Acceleration of the setting reactions and increase in impression rigidity depended (P<.001) primarily on concentration and valency of cations present in mixing water. CONCLUSION: Setting of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials can be significantly accelerated when tap water with high water hardness is used for mixing or when the mixing water contains higher concentrations of cations such as Na(+), Ca(2+), and Al(3+).

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