Water quality before and after deep tunnel operation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
You are viewing information about the paper Water quality before and after deep tunnel operation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
|Journal:||Water Res 2001/07/18|
|Authors:||Razak, I. A.;Christensen, E. R.|
|Address:||Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 53201, USA.|
The mitigative effects of the deep tunnel for temporary storage of storm water and sewage, on the water quality of the Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Kinnickinnic Rivers are investigated. The analysis is based on data from the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District's overflow and surface-water quality monitoring program. Statistical analysis of water quality parameters (BOD, phosphorus, suspended solid, fecal coliform counts, zinc, and chloride) in the three rivers indicates that Menomonee River benefits the most from the deep tunnel. Fecal coliform counts inside the CSO area, and to a certain extent BOD and zinc levels, exhibit the most significant decline after 1994 when the tunnel came on line. These conclusions are based on t-test comparisons of regional averages incorporating spatial and temporal correlations from 1991 to 1993 and 1994 to 1997. The results from t-tests are complemented and confirmed with results from Mann-Kendall tests for trend. Suspended solids and chloride do not decrease after 1994.